Nexus Docs

Lower Level Library (LLL)

The Lower Level Library (LLL) is the foundation for the TAO Framework. It is a base template library written in C++ minimizing hardware abstraction, thus maximizing bare metal efficiencies. Architecturally, the LLL is an interchangeable construct requiring logical development of templates and modules for specific functions. The LLL-TAO or TAO Framework is a series of LLL templates and data models that are accessible through a simple JSON-based API, allowing any type of developer to improve their application’s security, scalability, and robustness.
The LLL contains three main components: Cryptography (LLC), Database (LLD), and Protocol (LLP). There are several representations of LLD in the stack; Ledger, Register, Operations and API. The LLC is primarily applied at the Ledger layer although can be implemented elsewhere. As a component of the Network Layer, the LLP is designed to be a light, fast protocol that allows a developer to customize their packet design and message interpretation.

Lower Level Crypto

Set of Operations for handling Crypto including:

  • Digital Signatures (ECDSA, Hash Based)
  • Hashing (SHA3 / Notable Secure Algorithms)
  • Encryption (Symmetric / Asymmetric)
  • Post-Quantum Cryptography (Experimental)

Currently Implemented:

  • SK Hashing (Skein and Keccak)
  • Argon2 Password hashing
  • AES Standard (Symmetric)
  • FALCON (Quantum Resistant Lattice Signatures)
  • OpenSSL wrapping functions (EC_KEY, BIGNUM)

Lower Level Database

Set of Templates for designing high efficiency database systems. Core templates can be expanded into higher level database types.
  • Keychain Database
  • ACID Transactions
  • Sector Database
Keychains Included:
  • Binary File Map
  • Binary Hash Map
We welcome any contributions of new keychains to provide different indexing data structures of the sector data.

Lower Level Protocol

Set of Client / Server templates for efficient data handling. Inherit and create custom packet types to write a new protocol with ease and no network programming required.
  • Data Server
  • Listening Server
  • Connection Types
  • Packet Styles
  • Event Triggers
  • DDOS Throttling
LLP Protocols Implemented:
  • Legacy
  • Tritium
  • HTTP


Set of useful tools for developing any program such as:
  • Serialization
  • Runtime
  • Debug
  • Json
  • Arguments
  • Containers
  • Configuration
  • Sorting
  • Allocators
  • Filesystem